Introduction to Modern Cryptography


Cryptography is the science of protecting information by transforming it into an unreadable form. Cryptography has been used for thousands of years, but with the growth of technology, modern cryptography has become increasingly sophisticated. In this lesson, we will introduce you to the basics of modern cryptography.

Symmetric Cryptography:

Symmetric cryptography, also known as secret key cryptography, involves using a single key to both encrypt and decrypt information. The key must be kept secret, as anyone with access to the key can read the encrypted information. Symmetric cryptography is fast and efficient, but the key must be securely exchanged between the sender and receiver, making it less secure than other forms of cryptography.

Asymmetric Cryptography:

Asymmetric cryptography, also known as public key cryptography, uses two keys to encrypt and decrypt information. One key is used to encrypt the information and the other key is used to decrypt it. The encryption key can be made public, but the decryption key must be kept private. Asymmetric cryptography is more secure than symmetric cryptography, but it is also slower and more computationally intensive.

Hash Functions:

Hash functions are mathematical algorithms that take an input and produce a fixed-length output, known as a hash. Hash functions are commonly used in cryptography for digital signatures and message authentication. A hash function must have certain properties, such as being deterministic (producing the same output for the same input), being one-way (it is infeasible to determine the original input from the hash), and being collision-resistant (it is infeasible to find two inputs that produce the same hash).

Digital Certificates:

Digital certificates are electronic documents that are used to verify the identity of a person or organization. Digital certificates are issued by trusted third-party organizations known as certificate authorities (CA). Digital certificates are used in many applications, including secure web transactions and encrypted email.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI):

Public key infrastructure (PKI) is a system for managing and distributing public keys, digital certificates, and other cryptographic materials. PKI is used to secure many applications, including secure web transactions and encrypted email. PKI is an essential component of modern cryptography, as it ensures the secure exchange of information over public networks.


Cryptography is an essential component of modern technology, providing secure communication and protection for sensitive information. By understanding the basics of modern cryptography, you can better protect your information and ensure the security of your online transactions. Whether you are a business owner, a government agency, or an individual user, cryptography can help you secure your sensitive information and protect your privacy.

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